Skip to contentNational Women's Law Center

Our Resources

Equal Pay for African American Women

African American women who work full-time, year round are paid just 64 cents for every dollar a White, non-Hispanic male makes. This wage gap knows no bounds—African American women make less than white, non-Hispanic men even when you control for factors such as their education level, age, or occupation. This fact sheet explains it all.

Recently Introduced and Enacted State and Local Fair Scheduling Legislation

Employees increasingly face just-in-time scheduling practices, including being given very little notice of their work schedules, being sent home early when work is slow without being paid for their scheduled shifts, and being assigned to call-in shifts or on-call shifts that require them to call their employer or wait to be called by their employer, often within two hours of their potential shift, to find out whether they will be required to report to work. In addition, many employees have very little ability to make adjustments to their work schedules without penalty. More than a third of parents say they have been “passed over” for a promotion, a raise, or a new job due to a need for a flexible work schedule. Among low-wage workers, about half report having little flexibility in the hours that they work.

There is a growing movement to improve workplace scheduling practices so that workers and their families can better plan their lives. In the past year, lawmakers have introduced legislation at the federal, state and local level to respond to these difficult scheduling practices. In 2014, San Francisco passed a Retail Workers’ Bill of Rights. The Ordinance provides scheduling protections for employees in certain types of jobs. Also in 2014, Michigan introduced a bill modeled after the federal scheduling legislation that was introduced earlier that same year, the Schedules That Work Act. And in 2015, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York and Oregon introduced bills to curb difficult scheduling practices. This fact sheet provides an overview of this recently enacted and proposed state and local legislation.

School Reform and Dropout Prevention: Addressing Disparities in Discipline for African American Girls

African American Girls Experience Harsher, More Frequent School Discipline. Black girls are suspended and expelled from school at higher rates than other girls. In the 2011-12 school year, 12% of all African American girls in grades pre-K–12 were suspended from school—six times the rate of white girls and higher than the rate for any other group of girls, and white, Latino, and Asian American boys.

Schools suspend African American girls more often than they suspend white girls for minor offenses like dress code violations, or subjective offenses like “defiance” or “disobedience.” For example, an Ohio study showed that for behavior labeled as “disobedient or disruptive,” 16.3% of African American girls received out-of-school suspensions and 10% received in-school suspensions. In comparison, the rates for white girls were just 1.5% and 1.9%, respectively, even though Black girls are only a small fraction of Ohio’s student population. For the same offenses, Black girls more often received out-of-school suspension and white girls got in-school suspension. African American girls also are more likely than white girls to be suspended from school for fighting.

Because of such severe and frequent discipline, African American girls spend more time out of the classroom, which contributes to poor academic performance, increased dropout rates, and higher representation in the juvenile justice system. In 2009-10 African American girls represented less than 17% of all female students, but 31% of girls referred to law enforcement by schools and 43% of girls who experienced a school-related arrest. And despite an overall drop in juvenile delinquency cases from 1996 to 2011, girls’ share of delinquency cases increased; among females, the share of cases that involved Black girls went up while white girls’ share declined.

Gender and race stereotypes underlie disparate discipline rates of African American girls, while the impact of trauma is overlooked. Stereotypes of Black women as “hyper-sexualized” and aggressive may contribute to the implicit bias underlying many educators’ views of African American girls, who are more likely than white girls to be penalized for behaviors that challenge our society’s expectations of what is appropriate “feminine” behavior. For example, Black girls who complain about sexual harassment may be labeled as aggressors. Black girls who are assertive and speak up in class may be labeled as “loud” or showing “attitude.” Behavior that is labeled as “defiant” may in fact be a predictable response to unaddressed trauma or mental health issues. Punishing girls for such behavior instead of providing them with services and support fails to change the behavior or improve their engagement in school.

How Policymakers Can Stop the Unfair Discipline of African American Girls

  • Require accurate annual public reporting of school discipline data that can be analyzed by race, sex, disability, type of offense, and length of sanction.
  • Implement positive behavior interventions and culturally-responsive supports, social and emotional learning, peer mediation, conflict resolution, and restorative justice practices as alternatives to punitive discipline practices and police in schools, which are shown to negatively impact African American girls through increased arrests, involvement with the juvenile justice system, and lost learning time.
  • Train school personnel to recognize the signs of trauma that may underlie behaviors perceived as “defiant” or “disrespectful” and to support students impacted by violence or trauma without re-victimizing them.

Reports & Toolkits

July 21, 2015
For fifty years, Medicaid has provided low-income women with essential health insurance coverage. Medicaid covers a comprehensive range of services – birth control, maternity care, prescription drugs, hospitalization, long-term care, and more – that addresses women’s major health needs throughout their lives. Women of all ages and health circumstances rely on Medicaid to pay for their health care, and a growing body of research has demonstrated how important Medicaid coverage is to enrollees’ access to care, overall health, and mortality rates.
June 12, 2015
The Supreme Court’s decision in Hobby Lobby and Conestoga Wood Specialties v. Burwell has been misused and expanded in ways that sanction discrimination in areas beyond birth control coverage. This report cites more than 10 examples to demonstrate how the Hobby Lobby decision and the law underlying it – the Religious Freedom Restoration Act – have been to misused in attempts to shirk legal obligations, from refusing to comply with non-discrimination laws to resisting vaccination requirements.

Fact Sheets

July 31, 2015

State legislators in 2015 continue to enact laws that restrict access to abortion or ban it outright. So far this year, states adopted 52 new restrictions that limit access to abortion. These state restrictions are a dangerous overreach into women’s personal medical decisions.


July 29, 2015

This fact sheet explains why, when Congress considers changes to the tax code, a key priority should be saving critical provisions of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) and Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) before they expire in 2017.

Legal Briefs & Testimony

July 31, 2015

On July 21, 2015, the National Women's Law Center submitted comments in strong support of the Department of Labor's (DOL's) conflict of interest rule proposal.

July 31, 2015

NWLC’s comments to the Human Resources Subcommittee, Ways and Means, focus on the need for any TANF reauthorization bill to provide policies and adequate resources to ensure that families trying to leave or avoid TANF have access to affordable, reliable child care, in addition to the other supports and services needed to meet basic needs and get ahead.

Coalition Action Materials

July 20, 2015

This toolkit provides the resources advocates and community leaders need to talk to their leaders about the importance of investing in early childhood education over the August recess.

Download the toolkit.

July 15, 2015

The Schedules that Work Coalition collected workers’ accounts of the impact of difficult scheduling practices in their day-to-day lives.

Webinars & Presentations

Below are resources related to past NWLC webinars, conference calls and other presentations. Please see our list of upcoming calls & webinars.


July 22, 2015

This webinar, co-hosted by NWLC and CLASP,  covers critical information about the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) reauthorization law currently being implemented by states looking -closely at provisions of the new CCDBG law that most impact low-wage workers

July 21, 2015

This call focuses on the current situation regarding appropriations/funding for early learning, the impact of caps on spending for this year and on future funding, and messages for Members of Congress during the August recess.