Over the past three decades, an increasing number of women have joined the legal profession. Since 1992, women’s representation in law school classes has approached 50%. Despite record numbers of female judicial nominees, the percentage of female federal judges, however, is far lower. It is of critical importance to increase the representation of women on the federal bench.
When women are fairly represented on our federal courts, those courts are more reflective of the diverse population of this nation. When women are fairly represented on the federal bench, women, and men, may have more confidence that the court understands the real-world implications of its rulings. For both, the increased presence of women on the bench improves the quality of justice: women judges can bring an understanding of the impact of the law on the lives of women and girls to the bench, and enrich courts’ understanding of how best to realize the intended purpose and effect of the law that the courts are charged with applying. For example, one recent study demonstrated that male federal appellate court judges are less likely to rule against plaintiffs bringing claims of sex discrimination, if a female judge is on the panel.
But to obtain true gender diversity, the number of women in the federal judiciary, including the Supreme Court, must be increased.
- Upon the confirmation of Associate Justice Elena Kagan, the Supreme Court counts three women among its nine Justices for the first time in history, still only one-third of the members of that Court. Only four of the 112 Justices ever to serve on the highest court in the land have been women.
- Fifty-three of the 164 active judges currently sitting on the thirteen federal courts of appeal are female (about 32%). When broken down by circuit, women’s representation on several of these individual courts is even lower than on the courts of appeals overall:
- There is currently only one female judge among the Eleventh Circuit’s eight active members (13%).
- Women are also vastly underrepresented on the Third Circuit (where they make up about 17% of judges), the Eighth Circuit (18%), and the Tenth Circuit (about 18%).
- Approximately 32% of active United States district (or trial) court judges are women.
- But there are still eleven district courts around the country where there has never been a female judge. 
- For women of color, the numbers are even smaller.
- There are 71 women of color serving as active federal judges across the country, including 37 African-American women, 24 Hispanic women, nine Asian-American women, one woman of Hispanic and Asian descent, and one women of Hispanic and African-American descent. There are no Native American women among the over 770 active federal judges across the country.
- There are only 11 women of color on the U.S. courts of appeals. Five of those women sit on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, two sit on the DC Circuit, and one woman of color sits on each of the First, Fourth, Sixth and Seventh Circuits. Therefore, there are seven federal courts of appeals without a single active minority woman judge.
- If currently pending judicial nominees are confirmed, the number of women in the federal judiciary would increase.
- Of President Obama’s 301 judicial nominees to date (including his nominees to the Supreme Court), 127 are women. Forty-seven of these nominees have been women of color (25 African-American women, 10 Hispanic women, eight Asian-American women, one Native American woman, one woman of Hispanic and Asian descent, and one woman of African-American and Hispanic descent).
- Slightly under 42 percent of President Obama’s confirmed nominees have been women. This has increased the number of women on the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Sixth, Eighth, Ninth, Eleventh, D.C., and Federal Circuits as well as on a number of district courts. Thirteen judges have been confirmed as the first woman judge in their district; six more as the first woman circuit court judge in their state.
- The number of women of color on the federal bench has increased dramatically as well. The number of Asian-American women judges has quintupled, and includes the first Asian-American circuit court judge. Eight states have their first African-American female judges, and three states have their first Hispanic female judge.
- With the confirmation of the 23 currently pending female nominees, women’s representation on a number of other courts will improve – including the